"In the backyard of the [Royal Academy of Fine Arts] school was this little building, on the verge of collapsing. You would have to very carefully go over the stairs, because if you took one mis-step, you could literally push your feet through them. It was almost dangerous. So I think that the whole thing melted well together. It was the switch from the 80s to 90s, the reaction on excess with minimalism and deconstruction, the first appearance of grunge. So that feeling of romanticism, together with the history, the building and the run down corridors with the statues, it really did make a big impact on how you formed your visual language. I really think there was something quite dark and magical about it, matching perfectly the zeitgeist of the period."

— Willy Vanderperre

Chapter 3 Fashion as an Institutionalized System

1. The prototype of the fashion trade organization is found in Paris. It is called La Fédération de la Couture, du Prêt-à-Porter des Couturiers et des Créateurs de Mode (translated as The French Federation of Couture and Ready-to-Wear for Couturiers and Creators of Fashion).

2. Alison Lurie is a Pulitzer Prize winning novelist whose book The Language of Clothes (1981) has been widely quoted by fashion writers.

3. The details are in Yuniya Kawamura (2004).

Chapter 4 Designers: The Personification of Fashion

1. Max Weber describes three types of authority: traditional, legal-rational and charismatic. Charismatic authority first came to prominence in Weber’s analysis of domination. Contrasted with legal-rational authority, charismatic authority is the authority vested in a leader by disciples and followers with the belief that the leader’s claim to power flows from extraordinary personal gifts. With the death of the leader, the disciples either disband or convert charismatic beliefs and practices into traditional of legal arrangements. Charismatic authority is, therefore, unstable and temporary (Weber 1947).

2. Empire style dresses have a  raised waistline with a horizontal seam below the bustline and they have a slender silhouette.

3. The belle époque is a period of high artistic or cultural development, especially in France, at the beginning of the twentieth century.

4. A similar phenomenon can be found among Japanese designers in Paris (Kawamura 2004). Several designers who had worked with or under Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto, Rei Kawakubo and Tokio Kumagai, such as Atsuro Tayama, Gomme, Junya Watanabe and Yoshiki Hishinuma, have now set up their own brands. There is an informal network among the Japanese designers in Paris.

Chapter 5 Production, Gatekeeping and Diffusion of Fashion

1. The term ‘gatekeeper’ or ‘gatekeeping’  has been applied in relation to judgments about admitting a person or works into a cultural field (Peterson 1994). Gatekeeping is a way in which affirmations, reinterpretations and rejections shape individual works and whole careers (Powell 1978).

2. Until 1850, the dolls were most often executed in wax, wood or cloth. After 1850 papíer-mâché was used, allowing for more detail in head styles.

3. Toile is a mock-up of a garment made out of plain and simple twill weave cotton or linen fabric. 

— Yuniya Kawamura, Fashion-ology: An Introduction to Fashion Studies (Dress, Body, Culture)

1997 IG/RS, Dirk Bikkembergs spring—summer 1998, Paris October 1998.
In the late 1990s, Dirk Bikkembergs departed from his characteristic masculine style to enter the couture market with elegant tailored pantsuits. They still included his customary metallic effects, however, such as silver necktie knots and metal fox heads on fur boas. He also experimented with a lattice look, creating trellises of woven leather or knits, and he offered other knitwear with metallic accessories. His womenswear lines have included unadorned, tailored capes, long skirts, and reefer jackets.

1997 IG/RS, Dirk Bikkembergs spring—summer 1998, Paris October 1998.

In the late 1990s, Dirk Bikkembergs departed from his characteristic masculine style to enter the couture market with elegant tailored pantsuits. They still included his customary metallic effects, however, such as silver necktie knots and metal fox heads on fur boas. He also experimented with a lattice look, creating trellises of woven leather or knits, and he offered other knitwear with metallic accessories. His womenswear lines have included unadorned, tailored capes, long skirts, and reefer jackets.

1998 IG/RS, Dries van Noten autumn—winter 1998—99, Paris March 1998. 
Dries gives me some idea of the atmosphere — sometimes with just a few words — or maybe talks a little bit about how the show might look, or describes the collection. Then I come up with something, we consult, I show him some more ideas. Maybe he changes a few things or refines them. It’s always a matter of teamwork, but I try to leave a little stamp of my own character, otherwise it’s not interesting for the designer. — Inge Grognard, makeup artist, SHOW NOS. 01 — 26

1998 IG/RS, Dries van Noten autumn—winter 1998—99, Paris March 1998. 

Dries gives me some idea of the atmosphere — sometimes with just a few words — or maybe talks a little bit about how the show might look, or describes the collection. Then I come up with something, we consult, I show him some more ideas. Maybe he changes a few things or refines them. It’s always a matter of teamwork, but I try to leave a little stamp of my own character, otherwise it’s not interesting for the designer. — Inge Grognard, makeup artist, SHOW NOS. 01 — 26

1997 IG/RS + Raf Simons spring—summer 1997, Antwerp January 1997.
The collection was presented in a photo studio in Paris. A video showing 14 teenagers who run out of school and finally come together in an imaginary U.F.O., an environment created by themselves where they can indulge their fantasies in contrast with their daily life and earthly things such as school, parents, etc. The showroom was decorated with three large pictures taken from the video, and with 25 seventies style Plexiglas photo-cubes with photo’s of the teenagers.
The silhouette is again tight and close to the body, inspired by the Mods and the Punks in combination with schoolboys and surf boys. The materials are classical combined with vivid colours. They look old and washed off. Trash t-shirts with prints or pearls and shirts embroidered with ‘Teenage Summer camp’. The colours: red, jeans, brown, kaki, white, grey and black.

1997 IG/RS + Raf Simons spring—summer 1997, Antwerp January 1997.

The collection was presented in a photo studio in Paris. A video showing 14 teenagers who run out of school and finally come together in an imaginary U.F.O., an environment created by themselves where they can indulge their fantasies in contrast with their daily life and earthly things such as school, parents, etc. The showroom was decorated with three large pictures taken from the video, and with 25 seventies style Plexiglas photo-cubes with photo’s of the teenagers.

The silhouette is again tight and close to the body, inspired by the Mods and the Punks in combination with schoolboys and surf boys. The materials are classical combined with vivid colours. They look old and washed off. Trash t-shirts with prints or pearls and shirts embroidered with ‘Teenage Summer camp’. The colours: red, jeans, brown, kaki, white, grey and black.

1997 IG/RS + Raf Simons spring—summer 1997, Antwerp January 1997.
The collection was presented in a photo studio in Paris. A video showing 14 teenagers who run out of school and finally come together in an imaginary U.F.O., an environment created by themselves where they can indulge their fantasies in contrast with their daily life and earthly things such as school, parents, etc. The showroom was decorated with three large pictures taken from the video, and with 25 seventies style Plexiglas photo-cubes with photo’s of the teenagers.
The silhouette is again tight and close to the body, inspired by the Mods and the Punks in combination with schoolboys and surf boys. The materials are classical combined with vivid colours. They look old and washed off. Trash t-shirts with prints or pearls and shirts embroidered with ‘Teenage Summer camp’. The colours: red, jeans, brown, kaki, white, grey and black.

1997 IG/RS + Raf Simons spring—summer 1997, Antwerp January 1997.

The collection was presented in a photo studio in Paris. A video showing 14 teenagers who run out of school and finally come together in an imaginary U.F.O., an environment created by themselves where they can indulge their fantasies in contrast with their daily life and earthly things such as school, parents, etc. The showroom was decorated with three large pictures taken from the video, and with 25 seventies style Plexiglas photo-cubes with photo’s of the teenagers.

The silhouette is again tight and close to the body, inspired by the Mods and the Punks in combination with schoolboys and surf boys. The materials are classical combined with vivid colours. They look old and washed off. Trash t-shirts with prints or pearls and shirts embroidered with ‘Teenage Summer camp’. The colours: red, jeans, brown, kaki, white, grey and black.

The video stills of Grognard splattering paint are symbolic of the visceral aspect of their practice, in which the dispersal of colour and covering is seen as a very free, expressive physical gesture. The action of painting and creating is presented as one that stems from raw instinct. These images are the anti-thesis of the self-portrait — masked — shown on the cover, in which Grognard’s beautifully painted mouth is controlled by its frame and apparently incapable of self-expression. Perfection is constraint — mute and still.

The embrace of the accidental goes beyond the freedom of self-expression to an interest in the gesture of others: for their Euro 2000 project they allowed young football fans to create their own face painting, acting as enablers and observers rather than creators. Their celebration of the incidental marks of life also feels like a continuation of this urge: young models are left with their acne scars unconcealed, silver-haired women flaunt their wrinkles. Grognard also transposes the marks of experience into her fashion make-up, slashing a model’s brow with knife-like rips of a brush, or scarring her cheek with windburn and abrasions.

The battles we have fought and the scars we carry are part of what set us apart — if there is one thing that their work seems to protest above all else, it is the homogenising tendency so prevalent in the work of more commercial make-up artists and photographers. Much of the body of work displayed in this book was created during a period when their contemporaries were in utter thrall to the magic digital paintbox of Photoshop. No body was so perfect that it could not be improved, no face blandly beautiful enough that it could not have a little more individuality knocked out of it to appeal to an ever more massive mass audience.

Hettie Judah, An Honest Deception

"Perhaps we only know ourselves when we take account of our fantasies and possible selves. Perhaps we are the sum of our imaginings." — Thomas Morawetz, Making Faces, Playing God