Chapter 3 Fashion as an Institutionalized System
1. The prototype of the fashion trade organization is found in Paris. It is called La Fédération de la Couture, du Prêt-à-Porter des Couturiers et des Créateurs de Mode (translated as The French Federation of Couture and Ready-to-Wear for Couturiers and Creators of Fashion).
2. Alison Lurie is a Pulitzer Prize winning novelist whose book The Language of Clothes (1981) has been widely quoted by fashion writers.
3. The details are in Yuniya Kawamura (2004).
Chapter 4 Designers: The Personification of Fashion
1. Max Weber describes three types of authority: traditional, legal-rational and charismatic. Charismatic authority first came to prominence in Weber’s analysis of domination. Contrasted with legal-rational authority, charismatic authority is the authority vested in a leader by disciples and followers with the belief that the leader’s claim to power flows from extraordinary personal gifts. With the death of the leader, the disciples either disband or convert charismatic beliefs and practices into traditional of legal arrangements. Charismatic authority is, therefore, unstable and temporary (Weber 1947).
2. Empire style dresses have a raised waistline with a horizontal seam below the bustline and they have a slender silhouette.
3. The belle époque is a period of high artistic or cultural development, especially in France, at the beginning of the twentieth century.
4. A similar phenomenon can be found among Japanese designers in Paris (Kawamura 2004). Several designers who had worked with or under Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto, Rei Kawakubo and Tokio Kumagai, such as Atsuro Tayama, Gomme, Junya Watanabe and Yoshiki Hishinuma, have now set up their own brands. There is an informal network among the Japanese designers in Paris.
Chapter 5 Production, Gatekeeping and Diffusion of Fashion
1. The term ‘gatekeeper’ or ‘gatekeeping’ has been applied in relation to judgments about admitting a person or works into a cultural field (Peterson 1994). Gatekeeping is a way in which affirmations, reinterpretations and rejections shape individual works and whole careers (Powell 1978).
2. Until 1850, the dolls were most often executed in wax, wood or cloth. After 1850 papíer-mâché was used, allowing for more detail in head styles.
3. Toile is a mock-up of a garment made out of plain and simple twill weave cotton or linen fabric.
— Yuniya Kawamura, Fashion-ology: An Introduction to Fashion Studies (Dress, Body, Culture)